By Yujiro Hayami, Masao Kikuchi
The rice belt of Laguna Province, Philippines (popularly referred to as the heartland of the fairway Revolution, for its early adoption of recent rice varieties), has skilled dramatic financial and social alterations over the last 3 many years. along with the main advances in new rice know-how, 4 significant forces have brought on switch: expanding inhabitants strain on restricted land, implementation of land reform programmes, advancements in infrastructure resembling irrigation and roads, and penetration of city monetary actions. a special facts set generated from 11 surveys in the course of 1966-97 in a customary village in Laguna, as prepare during this e-book, illustrates a trend of socio-economic swap shared through many irrigated rice components within the Philippines in addition to in different Asian economies.
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Extra resources for A Rice Village Saga: Three Decades of Green Revolution in the Philippines
Strong protection of tenancy rights, with land rents fixed at lower-thanmarket rates resulted in a large income transfer from absentee landlords to tenants in the village. At the same time, land reform regulations resulted in an inactive land-rental market and narrowed the opportunity for landless agricultural labourers to become tenant farmers. During the three decades of our study, the penetration of urban economic activities became increasingly visible. Urban influences accelerated, especially after improvements in the highway system in the late 1970s, which reduced travel time from Pila to Manila from more than three hours to about two.
2 per cent by natural growth. Although data are not available, it should not be unreasonable to imagine that the expansion of the cultivated area largely paralleled the population growth in this period. The economy of the Philippines including Laguna Province was greatly disrupted by the Japanese military invasion in the 1940s. However, it appears that the influence of the war was relatively modest in East Laguna Village. In fact, the village, protected by the coconut grove and separated by marshy paddy fields with no access road from outside, represented a safe hiding place.
In the settlement stage, characterized by scarce labour and abundant land for new opening, rice farming typically was extensive. It relied purely on rainfall stored in paddy fields, which were divided by mud banks. As the soil was submerged by water with the coming of monsoon rain sometime between May and July, the fields were puddled with carabaos, 26 A Rice Village Saga and rice seedlings were transplanted. After that, virtually no crop care, such as weeding, was applied before harvest. Mature rice plants were cut either by hand-held knives at the neck of the panicles (this practice had largely disappeared by the 1920s) or by sikles at the bottom of the stems, and threshed by hand-beating on wooden plates or bamboo stands.